One of the most unique features of the WLCI is the application of science to decision-making processes. Scientific research is used to inform on-the-ground work done through the initiative. Scientific work conducted for the WLCI improves the understanding of ecosystems present and their response to various drivers of change. The USGS is leading the science effort and has compiled science strategies to help guide the science work that is conducted. The Science and Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) helps apply science to on-the-ground conservation work and management. A Science Assessment developed by the USGS helps identify gaps where critical scientific information is missing. The STAC helps determine how to fill these gaps.